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By: Azhar Ahmad

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Wednesday, 14-Dec-2005 00:00 Email | Share | | Bookmark
Macro Series Part 3 - Chapter 1 - Hexagonal

The Structure
To Avoid Landsliding
1st View
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I take this shot when waiting for visiting e-gallery, at Faculty of Creative Media (FCM), Multimedia University. It is so huge to avoid landsliding to go to faculty area. No color, but with texture, this structure look good for me.


Tuesday, 13-Dec-2005 00:00 Email | Share | | Bookmark
Announcement

And again I cant upload for one or two days. A renovation on progress at my lab and faculty. So don't shy-shy to come again after Thursday ya.

Regards from the warmest heart of Software Engineer

Azhar Ahmad a.k.a. ubie79
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor


Monday, 12-Dec-2005 00:00 Email | Share | | Bookmark
KLTex 2005 - Chapter 14 - The End of Journey

Smile Before Lonely
Gerald Genta
Bore Face
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I walk around SURIA outlets, and do some window shopping. The price is not too expensive. They’re 5 level of shopping area. Sadly, I cannot take any picture in this building. Maybe for security reason. After 3 hours walking and seeing, I feel too tired, but no chairs are available. So, make a decision to go to KLCC Park and rest there.

On 5.00 pm, the bus arrived, and some delegates have move out from bus to continue their journey for semester break. For conclusion, this is the first trip of my life, after 10 years. Last trip held on 1996, Sumur City Aerospace Adventure. Promise to myself, someday, I will have my own trip to Kuala Lumpur, finishing this short trip.


Sunday, 11-Dec-2005 00:00 Email | Share | | Bookmark
KLTex 2005 - Chapter 13 - PETRONAS Twin Tower

PETRONAS Twin Tower
Right
Perspective
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Kuala Lumpur City Center and PETRONAS Twin Tower

PETRONAS Twin Tower had been launch on 1998. On that time, this twin building is the tallest building over the world. Right, the crown has been move to Taipei 101 Building. With Muslim geometrical design, this tower outer material originally from stainless steel, the same alloy to produce house ware.

In this building located the most glamorous music hall, in Malaysia; Dewan Philharmonic PETRONAS. Also, SURIA shopping complex and food court. I don’t want to talk about these towers; you can see it by your own eyes….

KLCC Area


Saturday, 10-Dec-2005 00:00 Email | Share | | Bookmark
KLTex 2005 - Chapter 12 - Sky Bridge, PETRONAS Twin Tower

Waiting For Tourist Guide #1
Waiting For Tourist Guide #2
Waiting For Tourist Guide #3
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If you see the PETRONAS Twin Tower, one bridge is build to connect those two towers. That is Sky Bridge. Located at 41st and 42nd floor, this bridge has two pedestrian walk. The lower bridge is for visitor, and the other one for workers. This bridge is being use as, pedestrian walk from Tower A to B vice versa. On level 12, you can feel bias on your ear. To avoid it, just move your saliva into the throat.

When arrive to this bridge, I can feel some energy, and ‘syukur’ to god, give our country established well since 1957. We walk along the bridge with beautiful tourist guide. From upper, I can see the traffic nearby, the KLCC Park, also, small resonance. Maybe, the wind blows up the bridge, nicely. I would like to know, what technology twin tower use for absorb the resonance, but it’s secret and confidential.

About 10 minutes (maximum time) we hang out at this bridge. In the first floor, they’re several exhibits regarding to Twin Tower. I just remembering an excellent exhibit (show), how the tower absorb the storm. You should see it.



Engineering Design
The structural system selected utilises a 'two-hinge arch' springing from supports at level 29 and rising at 63 degrees to support a pair of parallel two-span continuous bridge girders at Level 41.

The structure of the two-level bridge is conventional framing constructed of structural steel with beams moment-connected to columns which bear on the level 41 continuous girders. The bridge is 58.4 m long and weighs about 750 tonnes.

The two-hinge arch supporting the bridge has rotational pins (spherical bearings) at the end of each leg or 'spring point' and at the top or 'crown' of the arch (bearings). The main bridge girders have a rotational (centering) pin directly over the arch crown to permit the crown to rise and fall as the Towers move closer or further apart.

The arch is a centering device, equalising joint movement at both Towers. As the Towers move together or apart, the legs change slope, the spherical bearings rotate at spring points and the legs flex at their top end. The bridge mid-point sinks or rises, flexing the two main girders.

The girders are pinned on the arch crown, which stays centered between the Towers, while both girder and blocks slide on pads. The mid-span centering pin and two girder slip pads accommodate this movement.

Continuous expansion joints provided through the level 42 and 43 structure, facade and roof to each side of the bridge mid point. Providing expansion joints at mid-point reduces the effect of girder flexure on bridge glazing, as window panel movement is then limited to each half-span rather than cumulating over the whole girder length.

When the Towers move side-to-side in opposite directions, or when they 'twist', the arch spring points twist on the spherical bearings and bridge end bearings slide in opposing directions guided by 'sliding keeper' blocks on bridge centreline.

In the event that it loses its arch support, the bridge structure would not collapse but deflect and stay in position.

Lifting of Skybridge

VSL Heavy Lifting, a specialist in this field, was appointed for the lifting of the skybridge studies and preparation for the lifting was carried out for more than a year in several countries including the United States and South Korea, simulating various wind and weather conditions including those based on actual load data over the past 50 years.

There are nine main steps in the lifting of the skybridge.


The skybridge's legs are lifted up one at a time by tower cranes. Once they are in position, control cables are used to lower them over their permanent bearings at level 29.


The two end block girder frames of the skybridge are lifted individually. The blocks are installed about 100mm above their final position at level 41. They are also retracted about 100mm into the tower to provide sufficient clearance for the skybridge centre section during lifting.


The four lifting jacks located at level 50 of both towers are connected on the bridge centre. The other four lifting jacks located on level 48 of both towers are connected to the bridge ends.


The centre section which weighs 325 tonnes is lifted about 11 metres and restrained. This is to allow the upper 10 metres of the legs to be connected to the girder on the bridge.


After a final check, lifting of the centre section commences.


At a minimum lifting speed of 12 metres per hour, the centre section is gradually lifted to its final level


Steps Seven to Nine took about two weeks. A temporary connection secures together the centre section and the end block girder frame to ensure there is no stress.


The legs are moved into place. When the legs are in their final position, the skybridge end blocks are lowered on their permanent bearings at Level 41. The centre section is then lowered to meet the legs.


After the lifting system has been removed, the floors were concreted, the skybridge roofed. The maintenance equipment is set up on stainless steel rails on top of the bridge.

At about 7.40 p.m., on 9 August 1995, after 32 hours of lifting operation, the skybridge was lifted to its final position at the 41st and 42nd levels of the PETRONAS Twin Towers.

For more information kindly visit
Skybridge KLCC http://www.klcc.com.my/Showcase/PTT/ps_ptt_skybridge.htm
Engineering Design http://www.klcc.com.my/Showcase/PTT/skybridge_design.htm
Lifting of Skybridge http://www.klcc.com.my/Showcase/PTT/skybridge_lifting.htm


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